BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:
Hemi-laryngopharyngeal spasm is a recently discovered condition characterized by episodic coughing and unilateral throat contractions that may lead to severe stridor. These symptoms are caused by a vascular compression of the ipsilateral vagus nerve, typically the PICA. Microvascular decompression of the vagus nerve has been demonstrated to be a potential cure for this neurovascular compression syndrome. The main aim of this study was to clarify the role of MR imaging in the diagnostic work-up of this rare condition.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
We describe the imaging and surgical findings of 3 patients from our prospective case series of patients with hemi-laryngopharyngeal spasm from 2015 to 2017. Second, the imaging data of 100 patients (control cohort) with symptoms unrelated to hemi-laryngopharyngeal spasm were reviewed to investigate the rate and degree of neurovascular conflict of the vagus nerve.
All patients with hemi-laryngopharyngeal spasm reported to date have had vascular compression of the vagus nerve due to the PICA. In the control cohort, there was a good interrater agreement in scoring the “contact” and “compression” of the vagus nerve (κ = 0.73. P = < .001). The frequency of contact or compression of the vagus nerve was approximately 50%. The PICA was the most frequent vessel involved in 74%.
The presence of unilateral neurovascular contact or compression of the vagus nerve does not confirm the diagnosis of hemi-laryngopharyngeal spasm. The MR imaging finding of ipsilateral vascular compression of the vagus nerve is a necessary but not sufficient finding for the diagnosis of hemi-laryngopharyngeal spasm.